Estimates of labour market activity by nationality and country of birth.

The data in this bulletin come from the Labour Force Survey, a survey of households. It is not practical to survey every household each quarter, so these statistics are estimates based on a large sample.

Figures show net changes in employment and should not be used as a proxy for migration flows.

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1. Main points for January to March 2019

UK Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

UK Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

UK Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

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There were an estimated 28.94 million UK nationals working in the UK, 190,000 more than for a year earlier.

EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

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There were an estimated 2.38 million EU nationals working in the UK, 98,000 more than for a year earlier.

Non-EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

Non-EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

Non-EU Nationals Working in the UK May 2019

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There were an estimated 1.32 million non-EU nationals working in the UK, 80,000 more than for a year earlier.

The Number of EU nationals Working in the UK has Reached a Record High – March 2019

Non-UK nationals (aged 16 years and over) working in the UK, not seasonally adjusted, January to March 1999 to January to March 2019

The Number of EU nationals Working in the UK has Reached a Record High - March 2019

The Number of EU nationals Working in the UK has Reached a Record High – March 2019

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Employment measures the number of people aged 16 years and over in paid work. The employment rate is the proportion of people aged from 16 to 64 years who are in paid work.

Since January to March 2009, the number of non-UK nationals from outside the EU working in the UK has been broadly flat. In contrast, the number of non-UK nationals from the EU working in the UK has generally increased, reflecting the admission of Poland and other East European countries to the EU in 2004.

Looking at employment by nationality, between January to March 2018 and January to March 2019, the estimated number of:

  • UK nationals working in the UK increased by 190,000 to 28.94 million
  • non-UK nationals from the EU working in the UK increased by 98,000 to 2.38 million
  • non-UK nationals from outside the EU working in the UK increased by 80,000 to 1.32 million

UK Nationals Working in the UK Increased by 779,000 to 28.94 Million May 2019

UK Nationals Working in the UK Increased by 779,000 to 28.94 Million May 2019

UK Nationals Working in the UK Increased by 779,000 to 28.94 Million May 2019

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Looking now at how the figures have changed since the EU referendum (which took place on 23 June 2016), between January to March 2016 and January to March 2019: UK Nationals Working in the UK Increased by 779,000 to 28.94 Million

Non-UK Nationals from the EU Working in the UK Increased by 237,000 to 2.38 Million May 2019

Non-UK Nationals from the EU Working in the UK Increased by 237,000 to 2.38 Million May 2019

Non-UK Nationals from the EU Working in the UK Increased by 237,000 to 2.38 Million May 2019

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Looking now at how the figures have changed since the EU referendum (which took place on 23 June 2016), between January to March 2016 and January to March 2019: Non-UK Nationals from the EU Working in the UK Increased by 237,000 to 2.38 Million

Non-UK Nationals from Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 130,000 to 1.32 Million May 2019

Non-UK Nationals from Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 130,000 to 1.32 Million May 2019

Non-UK Nationals from Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 130,000 to 1.32 Million May 2019

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Looking now at how the figures have changed since the EU referendum (which took place on 23 June 2016), between January to March 2016 and January to March 2019: Non-UK Nationals from Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 130,000 to 1.32 Million

The Number of Non-UK Born People Working in the UK has Generally Increased Over the Last 20 Years – March 2019

Non-UK born people (aged 16 years and over) working in the UK, not seasonally adjusted, January to March 1999 to January to March 2019

The Number of Non-UK Born People Working in the UK has Generally Increased Over the Last 20 Years - March 2019

The Number of Non-UK Born People Working in the UK has Generally Increased Over the Last 20 Years – March 2019

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Notes: The EU series are based on the current membership of the EU; for example, Poland is included in the EU series throughout the entire time series, although Poland did not join the EU until 2004.

As shown in Figure 2, the numbers of people working in the UK who were born in EU countries and born outside the EU have generally increased over the last 20 years. This contrasts with the figures for non-UK nationals, shown in Figure 1, as the number of non-EU nationals working in the UK has been broadly flat since 2009. This indicates that the increase in non-EU born people working in the UK has been due largely to more non-EU born workers with British nationality.

For January to March 2019, there were 5.80 million people born abroad working in the UK, but the number of non-UK nationals working in the UK was much lower at 3.70 million. This is because the estimates for people born abroad working in the UK include many UK nationals.

UK Born People Working in the UK Increased by 179,000 to 26.84 Million

UK Born People Working in the UK Increased by 179,000 to 26.84 Million May 2019

UK Born People Working in the UK Increased by 179,000 to 26.84 Million May 2019

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Looking at the employment estimates by country of birth between January to March 2018 and January to March 2019, the number of UK born people working in the UK increased by 179,000 to 26.84 million

People Born in the EU Working in the UK Increased by 58,000 to 2.42 Million

People Born in the EU Working in the UK Increased by 58,000 to 2.42 Million May 2019

People Born in the EU Working in the UK Increased by 58,000 to 2.42 Million May 2019

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Looking at the employment estimates by country of birth between January to March 2018 and January to March 2019, the number of people born in the EU working in the UK increased by 58,000 to 2.42 million

People Born Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 124,000 to 3.38 Million

People Born Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 124,000 to 3.38 Million May 2019

People Born Outside the EU Working in the UK Increased by 124,000 to 3.38 Million May 2019

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Looking at the employment estimates by country of birth between January to March 2018 and January to March 2019, the number of people born outside the EU working in the UK increased by 124,000 to 3.38 million

Since the Mid-2000s the Employment Rate for EU Nationals has Been Higher than that for UK Nationals – March 2019

Employment rates for UK and non-UK nationals (aged 16 to 64 years), not seasonally adjusted, January to March 1999 to January to March 2019

Since the Mid-2000s the Employment Rate for EU Nationals has Been Higher than that for UK Nationals - March 2019

Since the Mid-2000s the Employment Rate for EU Nationals has Been Higher than that for UK Nationals – March 2019

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Notes: The EU series are based on the current membership of the EU; for example Poland is included in the EU series throughout the entire time series, although Poland did not join the EU until 2004.

As shown in Figure 3, the employment rate for non-UK nationals from the EU has been higher than that for UK nationals since the mid-2000s, reflecting higher employment rates (and correspondingly low economic inactivity rates) for migrants from East European countries within the EU.

The estimated employment rates for non-UK nationals from outside the EU have been consistently lower than that for UK nationals and for EU nationals, partly due to lower participation in the labour market from some population groups, for example, Pakistani and Bangladeshi nationals.

UK and non-UK people in the labour market: May 2019

Copyright: Open Government Licence v3.0

David Cameron Law
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: Studied Molecular Genetics BSc at Uni, 15+ years as an SEO consultant working with small to medium size businesses. 10+ years developing SEO software. Main Interests: Politics, Business, SEO, Web Development, Science, Nature .